In terms of brick, if one viewed the horizontal paving as if it were the side of a vertical wall one could describe this bond as consisting of a course of one stretcher laid next to one soldier and this pattern is repeated for the course. Published by Randal Taylor near Stationers-Hall. The different types of facings are illustrated below. Half bat A brick cut in half across its length, and laid flat. We use it only for the aesthetic purpose.
In English chalk districts, flint is substituted for the stretchers, and the headers constitute a lacing course. Stretcher or stretching brick A brick laid flat with its long narrow side exposed. Stretcher Bond has a monotonous appearance compared with solid wall bonds. Bricks laid along the wall show their sides stretchers and those laid across the wall show their ends headers. Frogs can be deep or shallow but should never exceed 20% of the total value of the brick. Published for the Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures and Commerce. These bricks can be manufactured to provide different colors if pigments are added during production.
For example, you can divide brick into the types used for facing exposed and visible on the exterior of a structure vs. King closer A brick with one corner cut away, leaving one header face at half its standard width. Other imperial-sized bricks are obtainable to order. This accented swing of headers, one and a half to the left, and one to the right, generates the appearance of lines of stretchers running from the upper left hand side of the wall down to the lower right. The following are typical brick bonds frequently used for paving.
Their edges are typically worn and irregular and a number may have remnants of mortar on due to their original use. The stretcher and soldier alternate on each course but this time their order is reversed on each course. Alternate courses lie in opposing directions, resulting in a zigzag pattern. Concrete bricks should not be used in below-ground applications. At these more modest wall thicknesses, distinct patterns have emerged allowing for a structurally sound layout of bricks internal to each particular specified thickness of wall. Generally bond breakers are also designed to provide curing function, to ensure effective curing of casting molds as well as the top surface of precast members.
Raking Bonds Herringbone and diagonal bonds can be effective within an exposed framed construction, or contained within restraining brick courses. One of many methods of resisting such ingresses of water is to construct the wall with several low of dense engineering bricks such as Staffordshire blue bricks. In some cases these special shapes or sizes are manufactured. In sodium chloride or salt right , the sodium atom Na donates an electron to the chlorine atom Cl , forming an ionic bond. Brick laid flat and perpendicular to the face of the wall are called headers. When the bricks are placed lengthwise on the face of the wall, as at a, in Fig.
On a 45 degree angle a stairway of stretchers can be seen. Alas, there is nothing new under the sun, at least not in masonry bonds. The American bond is the most common because it is so easily laid. There are braids such as: Nordic Braid, Scottish Braid, Parquet Braid, Diamond Braid, Appian Braid, Celtic Cross Braid, and Pinwheel. Less frequently used cuts are all coloured as follows: Quarter bat A brick cut to a quarter of its length. A rowlock stretcher is sometimes called a shiner. It has the look of a fairytale cottage.
I have a YouTube video below right that shows a dry stacked column of bricks that can be tilted until the top of the wall is outside the base at which point the stack falls apart. The brick must be lapped upon one another, to prevent vertical joints from falling over each other. Bonding in Brickwork Bonds in brick work means method of arranging the bricks in courses so that individual brick units are tied together and the vertical joints of the successive courses do not lie in same vertical line. Each horizontal layer of brick in a masonry structure is called a course. They are also called Rowlock or Chinese bonds. Large areas of English cross bond can appear to have a like characteristic, an effect caused by the unbroken series of perpends moving diagonally down the bond. We have broken these down into there most common descriptive types.
To give a smooth rear appearance this type of brick bonds will be used. Strength is less critical for end walls, which are normally plain, than for front and rear walls with many door and window openings. In this grouping, a header appears at a given point in the group's first course. The thickness specified for a wall is determined by such factors as damp proofing considerations, whether or not the wall has a cavity, load-bearing requirements, expense, and the era during which the architect was or is working. This bond also has alternating stretching and heading. A wall being considered as having the properties of a , its bearing capacity will necessarily depend on the strength of its least dimension, which is its thickness, so that the bond which secures a thorough union of the constituent parts in this direction will always be the most desirable. Hollow wall bonds During the transition between solid walls and cavity walls, several hollow wall bonds appeared.